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Tape Corrections in Chain Surveying

The chain surveying performed by a tape is expected to have some errors due to incorrect tape measurements. In ordinary chaining works, the errors are neglected. But for important and precise survey works in construction, accurate tape corrections ...

What is the Global Information System (GIS)?

GIS is a computer-based information system that performs the activities of capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying both spatial and non-spatial data in order to solve complex research, planning and management problems. It is a system of hardware ...

Magnetic Compass Used in Surveying -Principles & Types

A compass surveying is performed by means of a magnetic compass which helps to determine the angles and the direction of the survey lines. The main two types of magnetic compass employed are a prismatic compass and a ...

Errors in Chain Surveying – Types and Causes

The errors formed in chaining can be either cumulative error and compensating error. The errors can be considered either as a negative value or positive value depending on whether the result is a higher value or smaller value.

What is Ranging? Direct and Indirect Ranging

The process of fixing or establishing intermediate points to facilitate measurement of the survey lines are called as Ranging. The intermediate points are located by means of ranging rodes, offset rods and ranging poles. Ranging ...

Linear Measurements in Surveying by Direct Method

Linear measurements in surveying can be performed by mainly three methods namely direct method, electromagnetic methods and optical methods. The direct method is the common method that employs a chain, tape or any other instrument to measure the ...