Tunnel Surveying -Methods and Procedures of Tunnel Surveying

Tunnel surveying is a type of underground surveying for the construction of tunnels. Methods and procedure of tunnel surveying is discussed. Special instructions on the type of survey and the equipment that must be used in the tunnel surveying procedure, for ...

Modern Surveying Instruments and Their Uses

Modern surveying instruments provides faster and more precise surveying than conventional instruments. Their types and uses are discussed in this article. In conventional surveying, chain and tape are used for making linear measurements while compass and ordinary theodolites are used for ...

Different Types of Levels Used for Leveling in Surveying

There are various types of levels for leveling in surveying. The process of measuring vertical distances in surveying is called leveling. To perform leveling, we need some level instruments to focus or to read the object. Nowadays, the technology also introduced ...

Types of Leveling Methods used in Surveying

There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is useful in various civil engineering construction works where levels of different structures need to be ...