Why abutment in bridge is designed as earth pressure and rest condition?
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Earth pressure at rest is used for the design of underground structures, be abutments, etc. because it is expected that there would be no lateral displacement in the soil mass after construction is complete and during the life of the structure.
Also, if you test the earth pressure in the field around these structures, it matches very well with the calculated earth pressure at rest for normally consolidated soils.
I made it simple for you,
After the construction soil is considered to be in a rest state and abutments isacting as a retaining wall for the soil.
As there is no displacement in the soil mass after construction a retaining wall to hold the soil in place is to be constructed in the form of Abutments.
Hope to understand the concept.
Abutment in bridge is designed as earth pressure and rest condition because abutments support the ends of the bridge and transfer the loads from the superstructure in to the ground. The abutments also support the bearing devices and the backwalls Moreover, bridge abutments connect the deck, or surface of the bridge, to the ground and help support its weight both horizontally and vertically. On short bridges, one abutment is placed at either end of the bridge and connected to the embankment, sometimes including a retaining wall.