How to repair the damaged beams and walls in load-bearing construction as shown in the images below. As seen in the picture, the structure has been broken to make way for drain pipes.
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In the load-bearing structure, we can not punch holes to connect two rooms. We will damage the structure if we do so because the weight of the walls actually helps to hold the building together and stabilize it against the external forces such as wind and earthquake, etc.. We follow the following basic principle to improve the ability of the structure:
The main purpose of this is to restore the shape of the building so that services start working. It does not improve the structural strength of the building but is important to meet the requirement for another unbalanced forces. It consists of-
The main purpose of it is to carry out structural repair work for load-bearing elements(beam, columns, etc.). I involves the cutting portions of the elements and rebuilding them or adding more material so that the building’s original strength is restored. Some of the methods to do so are-
Strengthening of the Structure:
It is the improvement over the original strength, which was before the damage of the structure. It consists of-
there is wrong construction practice in the given photo
Never cut your structural members like beam and column.
put your pipe outside of the wall and do plaster around the pipe as shown in picture
Put outside all of the plumbing work, which cut the structural member like beam-column.
for given situation i have one solution that is shown in figure
we need to construct two column to transfer that beam load to the foundation.
This is the solution that we can apply.
There are certain methods to remove the delaminated concrete, and then formwork is to be fixe. After that, the application of repair material like a dry pack, and wet pack, shotcrete, is carried out if reinforcement is not removed while fixing the pipe.
You can try one other method also, by fixing plate bonding in the beam on the bottom to enhance the flexural strength, you will have to rest the plate on the bricks, and for that, you will have to remove the top layer of the brick. You also may need to provide scaffolding if you are altering the load-bearing wall. As it is a load-bearing structure, if any alteration is done in the load-bearing wall, it should be done with the consultation of a structural engineer.
First of all, I want to say something about this structure and please take note of that seriously:
The same principle works for load-bearing walls but on a larger scale. When you or a contractor remove a load-bearing wall, it must be replaced with either: Beam only: A horizontal structural beam of sufficient size. Other than the two ends, the beam has no vertical bearing points.
To resolve the problem as stated, I would advise the following steps as one solution. I am assuming that the drain pipe stays where it is. The beam damaged appears to be a tie beam or a lintel beam.
I would rather avoid such repair work by designing the proper location for the pipe. Drainage pipes are normally routed in a service shaft and not embedded, as is done in the present case.
The first thing to is –
1-Avoid these type of work/steps like breaking and cutting of structural members.
2-Choose an alternative option or diversion.
3-if necessary to cut or break structural member than avoid cutting of reinforcement .
4-use needful precautions & methode.
Methodes for repairs
#divert this pipe by using 45 degree bend or sue bend and fill brick wall with brickbat and rich mortar and grout beam with finer aggregate concrete(using 6 to mm aggregate)
#if above option is not possible than do plywood centring on wall face coveing pipe and cutout with support and grout as above, and plaster it using mesh on cutout and pipe surface.