What are the properties of good building stones?
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Madeh Izat Hamakareem
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The following properties you should check or take care of good building stone are:
7. Specific Gravity
8. Absorption Capacity
Properties to look for in good building stones :
Hard, durable, tough, sound, and free from weathering, decay, or defects like cavities, cracks, sand holes, injurious veins, patches of loose or soft materials, etc.
The properties to look for in a good building stone are
Following property you should check to identify good building stone
For more detail you can visit https://theconstructor.org/building/requirements-of-a-good-building-stone/7541/
An ideal or good building stone must be inert, does not soundness property means should not contract and expand, should not hold water, or release moisture.
But, It depends on stone type and climatic conditions which vary from place to place and where it use.
Ex for foundation ,wall covering, parapet covering, boundary walls etc.
You asked a general question about stone. So it literally depends upon geographic location, environmental conditions, and where it use.
If I give a theoretical answer then,
Stone must be strong,
Appearance-wise good -Gives nice look to wall, t
stone with zero porosity,
stone with fire resistant,
stone with dense mass and light in weight for wall and heavy for foundation.
Appearance should be decent and color should last long
For making them durable, natural bed shall be precisely noted. The stones ought to be organized in such a structure, that the natural bed ought to be perpendicular or near the bearing of weight.
Facility of Dressing
It should be easily- carved, moulded, cut and dressed. The stones to be used should be choosed wisely.
should be sharp, even, bright and clear with grains well cemented together.
Coeff of hardness: >17 to use in roadwork, 14-17 medium hardness, <14 should not be used.
>3% no use, = 3% tolerable, ≤ 3% good
Resistance to Fire
Time-lapse of 6 – 12 months is good for seasoning
2.4 to 2 .8, heavy stones – dams, weirs, retaining walls, docks, harbours, etc and lighter stones – domes, roof coverings, etc.
compact fine crystalline structure free from cavities, cracks or patches of soft or loose material.
< 13 no use, 13 – 19 medium tough, > 19 very tough
% absorption by weight after 24 hours should not be greater than 0.60.
Properties of good building stone ;
I would like to add more points,
Quality and quantity of building stones mainly depend upon the locally available material and site engineer.
The stones which are cost-effective and locally available are in the topmost preference for construction.but following are some criteria to select a good building stone.
Properties of good building stone
A good building stone should have more durable.
Its appearance is good. A building stone can be dressed easily.
It is free from tractor hardness and wear. The structure of building stone is matters a lot.
Hardness is one of the important properties of any building stone.
Toughness is also one of the crucial properties of building stone.
Any type of building stone should have porosity and absorption percentage within its permissible limit.
Seasoning weathering is again the property of building stone.
Workability is one of the most important properties of building stone.
I hope your doubt is clear. Thank you.
A good building should have the compact fine crystalline structure.
Good building atonesshould be free from cracks, cavities,patches of soft or loose material and cracks.
REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD BUILDING STONES
The following are the quality requirements of good building stones:
Generally most of the building stones have high strength to resist the load coming on it. Therefore it is not of prime concern when it comes to check the quality of stones. But when the stones are to be used in large structures, it becomes necessary to check the compressive strength of stones.
Compressive strength of building stones generally fall within the range of 60 to 200N/mm2.
Building stones should be capable to resist the adverse effects of natural forces like wind, rain and heat. It must be durable and should not deteriorate due to the adverse effects of the above natural forces.
When stones are used in floors, pavements or aprons of bridges, they become subjected to wearing and abrasive forces caused by movement of men or machine over them. So it is required to test hardness of stone.
Hardness of stone is determined by Mohs scale.
Toughness of stones means it ability to resist impact forces. Building stones should be tough enough to sustain stresses developed due to vibrations. The vibrations may be due to the machinery mounted over them or due to the loads moving over them. The stone aggregates used in the road constructions should be tough.
5. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The more the specific gravity of stone, the more heavier and stronger the stone is.
Therefore stones having higher specific gravity values should be used for the construction of dams, retaining walls, docks and harbors. The specific gravity of good building stone is between 2.4 and 2.8.
6. POROSITY AND ABSORPTION
Porosity of building stones depend upon the mineral constituent and structural formation of the parent rock. If stones used in building construction are porous then rain water can easily enter into the pore spaces and cause damage to the stones. Therefore building stone should not be porous.
Water absorption of stone is directly proportional to the porosity of rock. If a stone is more porous then it will absorb more water and cause more damage to stone.
In higher altitudes, the freezing of water in pores takes place and it results into the disintegration of the stone.
Permissible limits of water absorption for some the commonly used building stones are as follow.
Giving required shape to the stone is called dressing. It should be easy to dress so that the cost of dressing is reduced. However, the care should be taken so that, this is not be at the cost of the required strength and the durability.
In case of the stones to be used for face works, where appearance is a primary requirement, its colour and ability to receive polish is an important factor.
Light colored stones are more preferred than dark colored stones as the colour are likely to fade out with time.
Good stones should be free from the quarry sap. Lateritic stones should not be used for 6 to 12 months after quarrying. They are allowed to get rid of quarry sap by the action of nature. This process of removing quarry sap is called seasoning.
Stone should be workable. Stone is said to be workable when the work involved in stone working (such as cutting, dressing & shaping) is economical and easy to conduct.
Cost is an important consideration in selecting a building material. Proximity of the quarry to building site brings down the cost of transportation and hence the cost of stones comes down.
12. FIRE RESISTANCE
Stones should be free from calcium carbonate, oxides of iron, and minerals having different coefficients of thermal expansion. Igneous rock show marked disintegration principally because of quartz which disintegrates into small particles at a temperature of about 575°C. Limestone, however, can withstand a little higher temperature; i.e. up to 800°C after which they disintegrate.
Hello sir, Stones are naturally going on rocks of igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic origin. Most of the rocks are sufficiently consolidated to allow them to be reduce or made into a number shapes and blocks or slabs to be used walling, paving or roofing materials. Rocks are frequently used in the development of constructions and heaps of structures. Stones are labeled into constructing stones, decorative stones and dimension stones. A constructing stone is chosen for its residences of durability, attractiveness, and economic system. Being cheap, hard, long lasting and naturally desirable searching stones are regularly used in construction. There are countless different of stones that are controlling their kinds and qualities. The standards of decision is primarily based typically on the following normal parameters:
Properties of stone for good building:-
HARDNESS, TOUGHNESS AND RESISTANCE TO ABRASION
A good bldg stone should have a closed grained and compact texture.
The stone to be used for ornamental craving and architectural appearance should be easily and economically dressed.
The stone to be used for an imp interior work should be well seasoned. Presence of moisture makes the stone soft and it is liable to an early decay when used in structural work.
RESISTANCE TO FIRE
RESISTANCE TO ELECTRICITY