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The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home for Civil Engineers

The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home provides informational resources to Civil Engineers around the globe on various subjects such as construction management, Structural Engineering, Building Construction Tips, How to Guides for Civil Engineers etc.

Different Types of Composites in Construction and their Uses

Composites are materials consisting of two or more chemically distinct constituents on a macro-scale, having a distinct interface separating them, and with properties which cannot be obtained by any constituent working individually.There are two ...

Compressive Strength of Mortar -Mix Ratio and Cube Test

Compressive strength of mortar is determined by using 2 inch or 50mm cubes as per ASTM C109 / C109M - Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars.Mortar is a combination of cement, sand mixed with water. It ...

Initial Setting Time of Cement as per IS 4031, IS 269

Initial setting time of concrete is the time period between addition of water to cement till the time at 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste, placed in the Vicat’s mould 5mm to 7mm from the bottom ...

Determination of Standard Consistency of Cement

The standard consistency of cement is that consistency, which permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould when tested. Procedure to determine the quantity of water required to produce a ...

Characteristics of Beams for Its Analysis and Design

There are a number of properties of a beam that an Engineer should be aware of as they dictate beam behaviour when subject to a load and ultimately represent possible areas or mechanisms for failure. The main ones being:Second ...


Circular Prestressing" is employed to denote the prestressing of circular structures such as pipes and tanks where the prestressing wires are wound in circles. In contrast to this term, "linear prestressing” is used to include all other types of prestressing, ...