## Tunnel Surveying -Methods and Procedures of Tunnel Surveying

Tunnel surveying is a type of underground surveying for the construction of tunnels. Methods and procedure of tunnel surveying is discussed. Special instructions on the type of survey and the equipment that must be used in the tunnel surveying procedure, for ...

## How to Use Planimeter in Surveying? Components of a Planimeter

What is a Planimeter? Planimeter is an instrument used in surveying to compute the area of any given plan. Planimeter only needs plan drawn on the sheet to calculate area. Generally, it is very difficult to determine the area of irregular plot. ...

## Theodolite Parts and its Functions for Angle Measurements in Surveying

Theodolite has many parts which needs to be adjusted every time while surveying. It is important to know about theodolite parts and their functions before using it to minimize errors during theodolite surveying. Theodolite is an instrument used in surveying to ...

## Special Surveying Instruments and their Uses in Civil Engineering Surveying

Sometimes special surveying instruments are required for specific purposes in civil engineering surveys. Types of these special surveying instruments with their uses are discussed in this article. There are many general surveying instruments such as compass, levels, theodolites etc. used for ...

## Modern Surveying Instruments and Their Uses

Modern surveying instruments provides faster and more precise surveying than conventional instruments. Their types and uses are discussed in this article. In conventional surveying, chain and tape are used for making linear measurements while compass and ordinary theodolites are used for ...

## Different Types of Levels Used for Leveling in Surveying

There are various types of levels for leveling in surveying. The process of measuring vertical distances in surveying is called leveling. To perform leveling, we need some level instruments to focus or to read the object. Nowadays, the technology also introduced ...

## Types of Leveling Methods used in Surveying

There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is useful in various civil engineering construction works where levels of different structures need to be ...

## Working of Vernier Theodolite for Horizontal and Vertical Angle Measurement

Vernier theodolite replaces compass for angular measurements. It can also be used for measurement of vertical angles. To be able to use the Vernier theodolite, it is important to know how it works. In this article, we will discuss how to ...

## Types of Chains used in Surveying, Their Parts, Testing and Advantages

Chains are the measuring instrument used in surveying formed by the 100 links of 4mm galvanized mild steel wire. These links are joined by 3 circular or oval wire rings. These rings provide the ...

## Electronic Distance Measurement Instrument- Types, Functions & Operations

Electronic distance measuring instrument is a surveying instrument for measuring distance electronically between two points through electromagnetic waves. Electronic distance measurement (EDM) is a method of determining the length between two points, using phase changes, that occur as electromagnetic energy waves ...