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The timber obtained from trees is cut into suitable commercial sizes and shapes for various engineering purposes. Some of the common market forms of timber are listed below.

Market Forms of Timber

Following are the different forms of timber available in the market.

  1. Log
  2. Balk
  3. Board
  4. Batten
  5. Plank
  6. Pole
  7. Deal
  8. Scantling
  9. End
  10. Quartering

1. Log

The trunk of a dead tree obtained after removal of branches is called log. It can be converted into any other or required form of timber.

Timber Logs
Fig 1: Timber Logs

2. Balk

Balk is a roughly square-shaped piece of timber obtained by removing the bark and sapwood from the timber log. The general cross-sectional dimensions of balk are greater than 50 mm x 50 mm and its length may be greater than 200 mm.

Baulk Timber Beams
Fig 2: Balk Timber Beams

3. Batten

Batten is a piece of timber which is rectangular in its cross-section. Its thickness lies between 50 to 100 mm and breadth varies from 125 mm to 175 mm.

Timber Batten
Fig 3: Timber Batten

4. Plank

A plank is a piece of timber whose thickness is less than 50 mm and breadth is greater than 50 mm.

Timber Planks
Fig 4: Timber Planks

5. Board

A timber is called board when its thickness is less than 50 mm and breadth is greater than 150 mm.

Timber Boards
Fig 5: Timber Boards

6. Pole

A pole is a round-shaped long piece of timber. The maximum diameter of a pole is about 200 mm. It is also called as a spar.

Timber Poles
Fig 6: Timber Poles

7. Deal

A Deal is a converted form of softwood log. It is generally rectangular in cross-section. The thickness of deal varies from 50 mm to 100 mm and breadth is limited up to 250 mm.

Timber Deal
Fig 7: Timber Deal

8. Scantling

Scantlings are the pieces of timber with nonstandard sizes. These are sawn out timber to a required size depending upon the work. The shape of the cross-section also changes according to the requirement. However, In general, the length of scantling is limited to 200 mm.

Timber Scantlings
Fig 8: Timber Scantlings

9. Quartering

Quartering is a square piece of timber. Its length varies from 50mm to 150mm.

Timber Quartering
Fig 9: Timber Quartering

10. End

The short pieces of battens, deals, scantlings, poles, quartering, etc. are called as ends.

Timber Ends
Fig 10: Timber Ends

About Sadanandam AnupojuVerified

Sadananda is a Civil Engineer and is an Author, Editor and Partner of The Constructor since 2016.