The timber obtained from trees is cut into suitable commercial sizes and shapes for various engineering purposes. Some of the common market forms of timber are listed below.
Market Forms of Timber
Following are the different forms of timber available in the market.
The trunk of a dead tree obtained after removal of branches is called log. It can be converted into any other or required form of timber.
Balk is a roughly square-shaped piece of timber obtained by removing the bark and sapwood from the timber log. The general cross-sectional dimensions of balk are greater than 50 mm x 50 mm and its length may be greater than 200 mm.
Batten is a piece of timber which is rectangular in its cross-section. Its thickness lies between 50 to 100 mm and breadth varies from 125 mm to 175 mm.
A plank is a piece of timber whose thickness is less than 50 mm and breadth is greater than 50 mm.
A timber is called board when its thickness is less than 50 mm and breadth is greater than 150 mm.
A pole is a round-shaped long piece of timber. The maximum diameter of a pole is about 200 mm. It is also called as a spar.
A Deal is a converted form of softwood log. It is generally rectangular in cross-section. The thickness of deal varies from 50 mm to 100 mm and breadth is limited up to 250 mm.
Scantlings are the pieces of timber with nonstandard sizes. These are sawn out timber to a required size depending upon the work. The shape of the cross-section also changes according to the requirement. However, In general, the length of scantling is limited to 200 mm.
Quartering is a square piece of timber. Its length varies from 50mm to 150mm.
The short pieces of battens, deals, scantlings, poles, quartering, etc. are called as ends.