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7 Different Types of Spillways

A spillway is a hydraulic structure built at a dam site for diverting the surplus water from a reservoir after it has been filled to its maximum capacity. Spillways are classified into different types on the basis of ...

Roughening Devices and their Types

Roughening devices are installed at the downstream end of the channel and their main function is to dissipate energy from water flow coming on to the downstream bed. Different types of roughening devices generally used are friction blocks, ...

Cistern and its Types

A cistern is an element of canal fall and it is provided on the downstream portion to dissipate the surplus energy of water leaving the crest.  The purpose of a

Factors Affecting Selection of Hydraulic Turbine

The hydraulic turbines or water turbines are important hydraulic machines of the hydropower plant that convert the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. There are different types of turbines such as a Pelton turbine, Kaplan turbine, Francis turbine, bulb ...

Groynes and their Classification

A groyne is a rigid hydraulic structure built either from the shore (in case of seas) or bank (in case of rivers) in order to dissipate the wave energy or to protect the banks from erosion by

Causes of Failures of Earthfill Dams

Earthfill dams are less rigid and more susceptible to failure. Like most of engineering structures, earth dams may fail due to various reasons such as faulty design, improper construction and poor maintenance practices, etc. Different causes of failure of earthfill ...

Low Heat Cement- Composition, Properties, Uses and Advantages

Low heat cement is a special tailored cement which generates low heat of hydration during setting. It is manufactured by modifying the chemical composition of normal Portland cement. In this article we discuss about the composition, properties, characteristics, uses and advantages ...


The criteria for the design of earth dams are: 1. Sufficient spillway capacity and freeboard are provided so that there is no danger of overtopping of the dam 2. Seepage flow through the embankment is controlled so that ...